The favorable effects of keto on caloric intake, body weight, lipid (fat) parameters, glycemic indices, and insulin sensitivity render it a therapeutic option in metabolic syndrome, obesity, and obese type 2 diabetes. Plus, various hormones, which are altered by all previous disorders, also significantly affect ketone-body metabolism.
Let’s take a look at their link with keto:
A variety of dietary modifications have been studied to improve glycemic control such as low calorie diet, low-fat diet, low-protein diet or high-protein diet.
Since the dietary carbohydrate is the major macronutrient that raises blood glucose levels, researchers have aimed to reduce the amount of carbohydrate in the meals to study the effects among diabetic people.
What do studies say?
Dietary carbohydrate restriction reliably reduces high blood glucose, does not require weight loss (although is still best for weight loss), and leads to the reduction or elimination of medication. ✅
On the other hand, carbohydrate restriction may increase the risk of hypoglycemia, especially in patients treated with insulin or similars. Hence, modification in drug dosage is recommended before initiating such a diet depending on glycemic control and class of antidiabetes medication therapy. ⚠️
In obese patients, keto has shown greater weight loss as compared to other balanced diets.
This comparative greater weight loss makes it an alternative tool against obesity. The possible mechanisms for higher weight loss may be controlled hunger due to higher satiety effect of proteins, direct appetite suppressant action of ketones, and changes in circulating levels of hormones such as ghrelin and leptin (which both control appetite).
A study conducted by Castaldo et al. in 2016 shows that short-term ketogenic diet may effectively reduce body weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, and insulin resistance in clinically healthy morbidly obese adults (BMI ≥45 kg/m2).
On the other hand, the diet significantly decreases cholesterol, blood glucose, body weight, BMI, and thereby reducing risk factors for various chronic diseases among obese hypercholesterolemic patients (BMI >35 kg/m2) without any side effects in long term.
Other relevant endocrine disorders
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) 🎢
Applying a ketogenic diet in the long term (12 months or more) results in decreased body weight, triglycerides, and diastolic blood pressure whereas it causes increased HDL (“good” cholesterol) as compared to a low fat diet.
Summing up, keto ameliorates all of the altered parameters in MetS by improving cardiovascular risk parameters, lowering blood pressure and diminishing resistance to insulin; and all of this without any adverse impact on renal or liver functions.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) 🎢
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with obesity, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, reproductive and metabolic implications.
Keto has been shown to have beneficial effects in the treatment of PCOS patients affected with obesity and type 2 diabetes. It has also been shown to improve depressive symptoms, psychological disturbances, and health-related quality of life in these patients.